A new layer of wood is added in each growing season, thickening the stem, existing branches and roots. Although “tree” is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition of what a tree is, either botanically or in common language. Certain monocots may be considered trees under a slightly looser definition; [8] while the Joshua tree , bamboos and palms do not have secondary growth and never produce true wood with growth rings, [9] [10] they may produce “pseudo-wood” by lignifying cells formed by primary growth. They differ from shrubs , which have a similar growth form, by usually growing larger and having a single main stem; [5] but there is no consistent distinction between a tree and a shrub, [17] made more confusing by the fact that trees may be reduced in size under harsher environmental conditions such as on mountains and subarctic areas. The tree form has evolved separately in unrelated classes of plants in response to similar environmental challenges, making it a classic example of parallel evolution. With an estimated 60, , species, the number of trees worldwide might total twenty-five per cent of all living plant species.


A pH of 7 is neutral, acidic soils have a pH of less than 7 and alkaline soils have a pH of greater than 7. Phloem- also known as inner bark, phloem transports dissolved nutrients from the leaves to the other parts of trees and woody plants Photogrammetry – the science of interpreting and making reliable measurements from aerial photographs Photosynthesis – the process by which plants manufacture simple sugars in the presence of sunlight, carbon dioxide and water.

Chlorophyll is essential to the process Plantation – an artificially reforested area established by planting or direct seeding and usually made up of a single species Point Source Pollution – sources of water pollution generally a man-caused pollutant which can be traced to a specific place or location i. The sun, wind, falling water and trees are examples of renewable resources Residual Stand – trees, often of saw log size, left in a stand after logging to grow until the next harvest Residual Trees – live trees left standing after the completion of harvesting Rill Erosion – an erosion process in which numerous small channels only several inches deep are formed; occurs mainly on disturbed and exposed soils Riparian – vegetation that grows close to water; creeks, springs, small lakes or swamps.

Seed Tree Method – a natural regeneration method where all but a few trees are removed from the harvest area at one time. The tips of shoots contain the apical meristem.

Thus crystals, as they form, may have tiny imperfections that accept parent and daughter products in the same ratios as they occur in the lava, so one can inherit ages from the lava into minerals in this way.

Alternating patterns of distinct laminae are commonly identified within glacial lake deposits and are generally interpreted in the following way: However, there is actually no empirical evidence to back the claim that varves form as annual deposits over extended periods of time. It appears then, that claiming a varve is an annual event is an assumption in itself; one steeped in uniformitarian thought, but not reality. Geologists have known for quite some time that multiple laminae may form very rapidly.

French creation scientist Guy Berthault performed groundbreaking laboratory experiments demonstrating that multiple laminations can form spontaneously when sediment mixtures consisting of particles of different sizes are deposited in air, running water, or still water. This occurs because particles of different sizes have a tendency to spontaneously segregate and stratify themselves. Even uniformitarian geologists have acknowledged that stratification can occur quickly.

What Is Love?

Early versions[ edit ] The earliest illustration of a penjing is found in the Qianling Mausoleum murals at the Tang-dynasty tomb of Crown Prince Zhanghuai , dating to They brought back many Chinese ideas and goods, including container plantings. In the medieval period, recognizable bonsai were portrayed in handscroll paintings like the Ippen shonin eden Wooden tray and dish-like pots with dwarf landscapes on modern-looking wooden shelves also appear in the Kasuga-gongen-genki scroll.

If we look at the symbol of Isis we see the ankh in which carries the root form of the scepter.

Anabaena The Three Domains of Life As previously noted, stromatolites are most often described as biogenically-produced structures formed by colonies of photosynthesizing cyanobacteria. However, this is an enormous oversimplification given that the weight of scientific evidence suggests that all three domains of life the Archaeans, Eubacteria, and Eukaryotes appeared in the Archaean Era, and thus the so-called microbial mats would have contained representatives among all three domains.

Just how and when the base of the tree of life split into the three main branches remains one of the most important questions in all of biology and science, and is the source of constant scientific dispute. Which of the prokaryotes came first, the Archaeans or the Eubacteria remains unresolved, and a consensus has emerged that these primitive microorganisms laterally exchanged genes further confounding attempts to validate what begat what during to course of early evolution on earth.

Lateral gene transfer belies the concept of the single common ancestor see Woese, While formation by colonies of cyanobacteria is probably the primary mechanism for formation of surviving stromatolites in the deep time of the Archaean and half way through the Proterozoic, it is unlikely to have been the only mechanism.

Recent research Gupta, a, b, and an extensive literature indicates the other prokaryotic and the most genetically diverse domain of life, the Archaeans , evolved alongside each other and possibly swapped genes with the Eubacteria. All prokaryotes both Eubacteria and the Archaeans reproduce by cell division binary or multiple fission and, lacking sex, are essentially clones and among the slowest evolving organisms.

Moreover, some microfossils actually, putative ancient cellular remnants indicate that primitive Eukaryotic microorganisms may have appeared prior to 3. Thus, before the end of the Archaean time some 2. Some were autotrophs, some chemotrophs and some heterotrophs, and collectively they had a multiplicity of metabolic processes from which to derive their energy, and as they do today.

The Tree of Life is one of the most pervasive and enduring legends in the history of religion. It was a real tree that grew on the planet millenniums ago. It’s history is pan-cultural.

This would result in larger K-Ar ages lower down, but lower ages nearer the surface.

Many believe love is a sensation that magically generates when Mr. No wonder so many people are single. A few years ago, I spoke to a group of high-schoolers about the Jewish idea of love. I’ll define it, and you raise your hands if you agree. Love is that feeling you get when you meet the right person. And I thought, Oy.

This is how many people approach a relationship. Consciously or unconsciously, they believe love is a sensation based on physical and emotional attraction that magically, spontaneously generates when Mr. And just as easily, it can spontaneously degenerate when the magic “just isn’t there” anymore. You fall in love, and you can fall out of it.

The key word is passivity. Erich Fromm, in his famous treatise “The Art of Loving,” noted the sad consequence of this misconception:

Units a measure of length equal to the average length of a stride, approximately 3 feet. See also Roman pace , geometric pace , military pace 3. Architecture architect a step or small raised platform 9. I do not, pace my rivals, agree with their ideas. Pace a company or herd of asses—Bk.

When it is stated that these methods are accurate to one or two percent, it does not mean that the computed age is within one or two percent of the correct age.

The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.

We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.

Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.

If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found.

I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions.

Also, they do not get quickly buried by additional sediment.

Data structures: Introduction to Trees